There has been much confusion regarding the concept of teaching and how teaching should be described. It is a more complex situation if we called the classroom, It is reality a clear and precise definition of teaching cannot be given. Barr define it as it is the combination of many different things, and that the teaching act varies from person to person and from situation to situation.
“Teaching is the art of assisting another person to learn I include the provision of information (instruction) about the appropriate situation, conditions or activities designed to facilitate learning”. (English & English-1958) “Teaching is an interaction between teacher and student, under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about expected change in student’s behavior”, “Teaching is an activity, which is designed and performed for multiple objectives, in terms of changes in pupil’s behavior”. (Mujeeb-ul-Hasan Siddiqi).
Concept of Model
Models are mainly representations, copies or images of real objects. They can be used to represent objectives, systems. concepts or ideas.
The model is a pattern of something to be made or reproduced. It is a mean of transferring a relationship or process from its actual setting to another one in which it can be applied more conveniently and effectively. (Mujeeb-ul-Hasan Siddiqi – 1991)
Concept Model of Teaching
The model of educating can be characterized as an instructional plan. which characterizes the way toward indicating and delivering specific natural circumstances (school or school), which makes the understudies connect so that a particular change happens in their conduct.
Fundamentally model of educating is an arrangement or example that can be utilized to shape educational plans for study and furthermore to structure instructional material and to manage directions in the homeroom and different settings. What’s more, the point of the model of instructing is to improve instructional adequacy in an intelligent environment and to improve or shape the educational plan.
Characteristics of a Model of Teaching
All good models of leaching have some common identifiable characteristics., which are described as follows: Scientific Procedure. A model of teaching is not a haphazard combination of facts but on the other hand. it is a systematic procedure to modify the behavior of learners. They are based on certain assumptions.
1- Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes in detail on observable students’ performance and what the students will perform, after completing an instructional sequence. Specification of Learning Outcomes: All models of teaching specify the Specification of Environment: This means that every model of teaching.
2- Environmental Conditions
Environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed. The criterion of Performance: A model specifies the criterion of acceptable
Performance, which is expected from the students. A model of teaching delineates the behavioral outcomes, which the learner would demonstrate after completing the specific instructional sequence.
4- Specification of Operations:
All models of teaching specify mechanisms that provide for students’ reactions and interactions with the environment.
Functions of a Model of Teaching
The reader may ask the question that why should we develop a model of leaching, what are its specific functions or how does a model help the practicing teacher in the classroom teaching-learning process.
A model of teaching serves a useful purpose of providing in specific terms what the teacher has to do. He has a comprehensive design of instructions with him through which he can achieve the objectives of the course Teaching becomes a scientifically controlled and goal-oriented activity. Thus, a model provides guidance to the teachers as well as to students to reach the goal of instructions.
b- Developing Curriculum
A model of teaching helps in the development of curriculum for different classes at different levels of education. Specification of Instructional Material A model specifies a detailed instructional material, which a teacher can use to bring a desirable change in the personality of a learner Improvement of Teaching It helps the teaching-learning process and increases the effectiveness of teaching.
Assumptions of Models of Teaching
The models of teaching evolve on the following assumptions:
The principal suspicion, fundamental all models is that educating is the production of the best possible condition. The different segment portions of educating are related.
The subsequent supposition that will be that substance, aptitude. instructional principles, social relationship, kinds of exercises, physical offices, and their utilization, all structure a natural framework whose parts interface with one another to oblige the conduct, all things considered, educators just as understudies.
The third assumption is that different combinations of these elements create different types of environments and elicit different outcomes. The fourth one is that models of teaching create an environment. They provide rough specifications for the environment in the classroom teaching-learning process.
Elements of a Model of Teaching
The four elements of a model are focus, syntax, social system and support system.
The processing approach deals with the basic psychological processes that organize and direct teacher behavior. Ethnography, which has its roots in anthropology, looks at a whole social system. Ethnographers frequently participate in the social system they are studying.
Social Families of Models of Teaching
Joyce and Weil (1992) developed more than 20 models. They organized the alternative models of teaching into four families. This is information. processing, personal, and social and behavioral.
Information Processing Family of Models of Teaching
The teaching models of this family are concerned with the organization, presentation verbal and non-verbal symbols in a way that helps in the formation of concept and solution problems and development of the social relationships and integrated personality.
Some mportant models of this family
Instructional Thinking Model of Hilda Taba
It proposes to process the information through the inductive process.
Scientific Inquiry Model of J. Schwab
It is designed to teach the method employed by the subject for solving scientific and social problems.
Concept Attainment Model of J. Bruner
It proposes to develop concept inductive reasoning i.e developing a concept after presenting its examples and non-examples.
Advance Organizer Model of David Ausubel
It proposes to increase the capacity of the learner to absorb and relate bodies of knowledge.
Cognitive Growth Model of Jean Piaget
It has been designed to increase general intellectual ability especially logical reasoning.