Basically word “teach” comes from Old English word taecan that is in turn derived from the Old Teutonic taikjan according to thinker, and the root word is teik, meaning to show and is traceable to Sanskrit die through pre-Teutonic deik. The term “teach” is also a connection with “token” a sign or symbol. Old English taecan means to teach “Token” comes from the Old Teutonic word taiknom: a cognitive with taikjan.
So “Token” and “teach” are historically related. To teach. according to this derivation, it means to show someone something through signs or symbols: to use signs or symbols to evoke responses about events, persons, and observations, findings and şo forth. So “teach” is related with the medium in which teaching is carried on.
A descriptive definition of “teaching” in the 1500s would have been somewhat different from that of today. A descriptive definition then would have been formulated from such notions as to teach is to give information; to show a person how to do something; to give lessons in a subject. The conventional sense of teaching nowadays is not entirely different. A descriptive definition of teaching can be stated as follows: teaching is imparting knowledge or skill.
The purpose of such a definition may be to point out the reference of the term or to show how instances covered by the term differ from others with which it can be confused. A descriptive definition will remove, as much as possible, this indefiniteness by resorting to contextual usage. For example, in one context “imparting” means to share, as when someone says to teach is to share experiences.
In another context “imparting” signifies the communicating of information by lecture. But even when resorting to context eliminates ambiguities, the term clearly denotes certain objects and just as clearly rules out others, there will be cases to which the term might or might not apply. Is the spreading of propaganda to be counted teaching? Some persons will say yes and others no. depending upon their concept of propaganda and how to fit their notion of what means to be educated. The descriptive definition of teaching as imparting knowledge allows the matter to be settled either way.
A descriptive definition can focus on thinking upon a particular course o development (Scheffler 1960 pp.19-28). It is then said to shade off into programmatic definition. For example, if “imparting information” is taken to mean that lecturing is the imparting mode. Those, who advocate inquiry as to the mode of teaching, will be quick to oppose the descriptive definition.
Pedagogical discourse is often fraught with semantic issues.
Nature of Teaching
The previously short definition of teaching was “giving information and imparting knowledge”. Teacher and the subject being its two poles was the time when the thinking about teaching as a bio-polar process: The child’s way altogether ignored. That time needs and desires were not important. The teacher and the subject matter were considered more important than the child. The child was measured by the adult yardstick. The subject matter was read out, told by the teacher and the child simply memorized.
Readymade material was given to him, which sopped his energies. Modern education has brought the child into the limelight. Now educative process revolve around the child. Now the concept of teaching is undergoing as a radical change in the light of this;
Aspects of teaching
(1) Teaching is Causing to Learn
It is an unrealistic approach for the child if treated him like an empty vessel. We cannot force the child to learn. He will learn only when he is willing to learn. A child-willing worker can learn well and the teacher must make him. The teacher must guide the child to learn for himself. The teacher role must be like an instrument in facilitating learning.
(2) Teaching is For Information
There are so many things, which the child does not know or cannot know. It is essential to provide some needy knowledge to the child. Keeping in view his needs and capacities, it should be presented in a systematic and interesting way.
(3) Teaching is Stimulating Learning
The child will not willing to learn, the teacher can find ways for stimulating and encouraging learning. He should provoke their interests and motivate them to learn. The teacher is to make the child-willing worker.
(4) Teaching is Giving Guidance
Teaching gives guidance to the child because his own efforts is not sufficient. The child may make random movements, resulting in the sheer wastage of time, so he should be guided to do the right things in the right manner and at the right time. He should be able to make correct responses to the various stimulations in his environment. This leads us to another aspect of teaching.
(5) Teaching is Helping the Child to Make Effective Adjustments
The main aim of teaching is to enable a successful social life. This requires the ability of the child to make effective adjustments to his environment. For this, he should be provided a simplified environment in the school in which the child learns to overcome difficulties and make effective adjustments on a small scale. We should develop child innate powers and train him well and in the right direction.
(6) Develop Emotional Stability
Teaching will be inadequate if we do not train the emotions of the child and develop his emotional stability. Right actions spring from the right feelings. The child should feel a sense of security, which is possible in an atmosphere of love and freedom. The teacher should have an encouraging and sympathetic attitude towards his pupils.
Teaching is a process of motivating, imparting knowledge, and guiding pupils to learn through their own activities, training their emotions and developing their powers and capacities so that they become able to make effective adjustments to their environment.
(7) Teaching is a Triangular Process
The modern concept of the nature of teaching is that it is a triangular or tri- Polar process. This process revolves around the teacher, the child, and the subject matter. It is a really close relationship between the three in fact. Teaching is a uniting force.
We cannot have teaching unless three are present. In all the three the teacher is the most active agent in the process of establishing the relationship and to bring about effective relationships. The teacher must understand his pupils on one the hand and have a thorough knowledge of his subject on the other. The relationship between the subject and the child suggests another aspect of teaching.
Characteristics of Good Teaching
(a) Good Teaching Involves Skill of Guiding,
Learning with the help of guidance students can do do the right things, in the right manner and at the right time. The teacher can guide the students but It is not good to impose guidance on the child.
(b) Good Teaching is Stimulating
Simulation and inspiration are of fundamental importance in teaching. A good teacher will try to stimulate his pupils for work, or otherwise, they become a loser and disinterested in studies. Without adequate stimulation, if the pupil acts, no worthwhile learning force takes place.
(c) Good Teaching is well planned
A good teacher organizes and plans the subject matter in advance. Effective delivery of the lesson is impossible without proper planning. However, planning must provide scope for necessary changes due to unexpected changes that may arise in the classroom.
(d) Good Teaching is Kindly and Sympathetic
A good teacher is always kind and attends to his pupils’ difficulties and doubts sympathetically. If teacher have such qualities students will feel that the teacher is their well-wisher. On the other hand, a harsh teacher can never elicit a warm response from his pupils.
(e) Good Teaching Literates the Learner
Good teaching develops in the child’s habits of initiative, dependent thinking, self-reliance, and self-confidence. It enables pupils to learn for themselves and reduces their dependence upon the teacher. That is to say, the child is liberated from teaching.
(f) Good Teaching is Both Diagnostic and Remedial
The teacher must study and assess the inborn qualities of the children individually such as their handicaps, limitations, and difficulties are to be discovered and their remedies like a Doctor, the Teachers’ has the ability to prescribe treatment for it.
(g) Good Teaching is a Democratic
Good teaching should be based on democratic principles. The teacher should have due regard to the rights and individuality of the child. Methods of teaching and subject matter should be selected from this viewpoint.
(h) Good Teaching is Co-relative
A good teacher does not simply narrate various items of knowledge in watertight compartments. The teacher must-tries to link the new knowledge and experience. The teacher must craft the subject or lesson according to their physical and social environmental abilities.
(i) Good Teaching is suggestive and Co-operative
A polite teacher will not impose anything rather he will seek his co-operation and suggest activities, ideas, materials, etc. It is a psychological fact that suggestions take deeper root in the minds of children whereas direct advice is generally repulsive to the children. For example, to inculcate his qualities of courage and fortitude, life stories of brave personalities may be suggested to read.