The specific teaching akin to skill training rather than to education in a broader sense is called “instruction”. Maybe audio-visual correspondence, individual, etc. From the observation and analysis of forty-nine tape-recorded lessons, the following operational definitions of strategy and tactic, as these terms apply to instruction, were developed:
A plan for an exercise (s), which incorporates the structure, wanted student conduct regarding the objectives of guidance and a blueprint of arranged strategies important to actualize the technique. The exercise methodology is a piece of a bigger improvement plot.
Strategies are in a sense, the ‘why’ of specific teacher behaviour. Some are a function of more explicit ‘now’ goals, or ‘one-lesson accessible’ strategies; others, which take more than one lesson to develop and usually continue over a period of several lessons are referred to as ‘overtime’ strategies. Either one-lesson-accessible or overtime strategies may be changed, modified or discontinued (with another substituted perhaps) as a lesson proceeds and the teacher interprets feedback from the students. One factor, which may give rise to such change in a lesson strategy, is the nature of that strategy in relation to the hypothesised and real readiness and rate of progress of the unique group of students.
Strategy planning is done at a time other than that at which the teacher is teaching; however, this is not to deny that the teacher may get some ideas for future strategies while in the process of teaching.
Goal-linked influenced/influencing behaviour of the teacher – the way a teacher behaves in the instructional situation in working towards the development of the strategy; units of teacher behaviour through which he fulfils his various instructional roles with the students of his class from moment to moment; the components of teacher behaviour through which the teacher, the students and the subject matter interact.
A tactic may range from no overt teacher behaviour (e.g. using silence for a specific purpose) to one question or statement to a complex of verbal or purposeful non-verbal teacher behaviour interlaced with student behaviours.
After an operational definition of tactics and strategies had been build, attention was turned to searching for the ways in which tactics and strategies fit into the total picture of instruction; that is, an attempt was made to seek relationships among tactics, strategies, teacher behaviour, goals of education and the learners.
Model of Instruction:
Everyone knows that the teacher not only influences student behaviour but that he is also influenced by student behaviour. The teacher is constantly observing the student and modifying his own behaviour in terms of his observations. We may, therefore, say that instructional behaviour consists of a chain of three links – observing, diagnosing and acting.
The idea of influencing influenced teacher behaviour seemed most intriguing, as was the picture of the teacher as behaver, observer and diagnoser. By applying these two ideas, the following four aspects of instruction were identified.
1- Teacher planning in terms of what the teacher knows of the learner, the curriculum, the situation. Teacher behaviour, initiatory – to create a focus for thinking and working, what the teacher does to get things started.
2. Teacher observation, interpretation and diagnosis of learner behaviour in terms of the situation, knowledge of prior experiences
3. Teacher behaviour influenced/influencing influenced by the observations, interpretations and diagnosis of learner behaviour and influencing to the degree that teacher behaviour stimulates further learner behaviour.
Almighty Lord created a universe. To beautify Lord made a lot of different things. If we look around it is crystal clear that everything is graced with the opposite. In the teaching world even when we take a small group of pupils, we do not find two children alike. So individuality exists all around us. We can’t deny this fact and to make teaching more effective we should accept this reality.
Education and growth, both are two individual affairs and can be well shaped only in a healthy and free atmosphere. Any form of pressure or stress stops a child’s natural growth and learning. So we recognize the child, and child-centered education is responsible to give rise to the thinking of individual freedom.
Thus individual method provides for an individual child, facilities of instructions, keeping in view his needs, intelligence, and motivation, rate of learning, capacity and aim in life.
In short, we can say, that it would bring confidence, self-respect, and self-reliance in children. In the modern era, a child-centered education system is thought of as the best. Therefore, it is needed to prefer individual brought-up to make teaching and training meaningful.
Merits of Individualized Teaching
– This kind of teaching is imparted in accordance with individual conflicts of a child so it would satisfy him individually. Though an individual is a member of society one possesses one’s own personality or individuality. For instance, two students cannot hold the same position at one time; there will always be a difference even in points. So, a good teacher must keep in practice, to develop personalities at the individual level.
With the help of individualized teaching, a particular subject can be well acknowledged and, therefore, can be given due, complete/full attention to each and every aspect of that particular subject. The individualized teaching method builds the character and brings insight. It develops qualities of self-confidence, self-respect, and self-reliance in individuals.
– This kind of instruction assists the students to develop the habit of self-study that takes them towards their natural aptitude. It becomes a natural way for them to find a particular aim. It evokes one’s curiosity and creativity.
Therefore, it satisfies natural desires or instincts. According to Froebel, “the ideas (or things) are hidden inside the mind and heart of the child, which come into the light” so individual attention is a source to probe the hidden potential and qualities of a child, to enlighten and polish them. In return, a child (Karner) feels satisfied and solaced.
– It trains students for practical life because it lays emphasis on objectivity or practicability. His well-built confidence helps him greatly to face the hardships and to solve problems.
– It greatly affects the literature, geography, mathematics and writing ability of a learner, so it is best to teach childrèn by applying this method. Whereas, music, art, and physical education can be well taught in groups especially in primary classes. Individualized teaching is very effective and brings good results in the long run.
If we do not teach our learners how to read, write, do or pronounce individually, it will not satisfy them and, therefore, the next educational process will be difficult for them.
– It is fruitful especially in the case of weak students. It provides the opportunity to express their difficulty without any hesitation whereas, in a group, they cannot express well. Any absentee cannot recover missing lesson but in case of this method, he may recover before the new lesson is taught.
– In this method, it is convenient for the teacher to identify the weaknesses and problems of learners and solve them accordingly. But it is not possible in a group to pay special attention to each and every individual.
– In individualized teaching, one is not stuffed or forced rather one learns according to his capacity. In this way, a learner is also responsible for his own progress or position.
– It connects teachers and learners closer. The close relationship enables the teacher to guide and train his learner more appropriately.